Australia will get its fifth prime minister in eight years after the ruling Liberal Party on Monday voted out Tony Abbott in favor of longtime rival Malcolm Turnbull following months of speculation and crumbling support from voters.
Turnbull, a multi-millionaire former banker and tech entrepreneur, won a secret party room vote by 54 to 44, Liberal Party whip Scott Buchholz told reporters after the meeting in Canberra.
Foreign Minister Julie Bishop was elected deputy leader of the party which, with junior coalition partner the National Party, won a landslide election in 2013.
Since then, the popularity of the government and Abbott in particular has suffered from a series of perceived policy missteps, destabilizing infighting and leaks.
The opposition Labor Party has consistently led opinion polls, while Turnbull has been consistently viewed as preferred prime minister.
"Ultimately, the prime minister has not been capable of providing the economic leadership our nation needs," Turnbull told reporters at parliament house ahead of the vote. "We need a different style of leadership."
Abbott pledged to fight the challenge but was ultimately unsuccessful in overcoming the "destabilization" that he said had been taking place within the party over months.
He walked stony faced out of the party room following the vote and did not speak to reporters.
Abbott ousted Turnbull as leader of the Liberal Party in 2009 although Turnbull has consistently been seen as a preferred prime minister. However, Turnbull's support for a carbon trading scheme, gay marriage, and an Australian republic have made him unpopular with his party's right wing.
'It's pretty amazing to think that we will have had two prime ministers overthrown in their first terms, which hasn't happened since World War Two'
The challenge came as Australia's $1.5 trillion economy struggles to cope with the end of a once-in-a-century mining boom and just days before a by-election in Western Australia state widely seen as a test of Abbott's leadership.
Abbott had earlier dismissed reports about a challenge as "gossip."
Peter Chen, a political scientist from the University of Sydney, said Turnbull faced the same problem as Kevin Rudd, a former Labor prime minister toppled by his own party. "He is popular with the public, but not necessarily within his own party," Chen said.
Abbott has continued to defy popular opinion inside and outside his party, despite pledging to be more consultative, blocking his MPs from supporting same-sex marriage and announcing an emissions reduction target criticized as inadequate by environmental groups.
He agreed last week to take in 12,000 Syrian refugees but the news was overshadowed by rumors of a cabinet reshuffle and an insensitive gaffe about climate change, caught by a microphone at a meeting, by Immigration Minister Peter Dutton.
A Fairfax-Ipsos poll published on Monday showed that voters in the seat of Canning in Western Australia could deliver a swing of up to 10 percent against the government in Saturday's by-election.
That would not be enough for Labor to win the seat but it would be seen as a disastrous outcome for Abbott's leadership just a year out from a scheduled general election.
The change of leaders is the latest sign of political instability in Australia, which has in recent years been convulsed by backroom machinations and party coups that have shaken public and business confidence in government.
Rudd, elected with a strong mandate in 2007, was deposed by his deputy, Julia Gillard, in 2010 amid the same sort of poll numbers that Abbott is now facing. Gillard was in turn deposed by Rudd ahead of elections won by Abbott in 2013.
Abbott has now become the shortest reigning first-term prime minister to be overthrown, Rod Tiffen, an emeritus professor of political science at the University of Sydney, told Reuters.
"It's pretty amazing to think that we will have had two prime ministers overthrown in their first terms, which hasn't happened since World War Two. This shows the degree of instability within parties that we now have," he said.
Labor Party leader Bill Shorten, in a scathing press statement following Turnbull's announcement, dismissed the idea the Turnbull was capable of changing the government's trajectory.
"Australia does not need another out of touch, arrogant, Liberal leader. Australia needs a change of government," Shorten told reporters in Canberra.
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